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Figures 2a and 3 profile the age of acquisition of consonant phonemes across the 15 studies of English-speaking children. Figure 2. Figure 3.
Across the 15 studies of English consonants, nasals, plosives, and laterals typically were acquired earlier than most affricates and fricatives. English consonants produced with the lips, pharynx, and posterior tongue typically were acquired earlier than consonants articulated with the anterior tongue; however, there was an interaction between place and manner, with anterior plosives and nasals being acquired earlier than anterior fricatives and affricates.
Five articles describing four studies reported the age of acquisition of Japanese consonant phonemes in Japan see Appendix B. The ages of the children ranged from 12 months 1;0 to 83 months 6;9. All five studies The use of interjudge and intrajudge reliability was unable to be determined. Figure 2b profiles the age of acquisition across the five studies of Japanese-speaking children. Across the five studies of Japanese consonants, nasals, plosives, and approximants typically were acquired earlier than flaps and most fricatives.
Japanese consonants produced with the lips, pharynx, and posterior tongue typically were acquired earlier than consonants articulated with the anterior tongue; however, there was an interaction between place and manner. Four articles describing four studies reported the age of acquisition of Korean consonant phonemes in South Korea see Appendix B.
The ages of the children ranged from 5 months 0;5 to 76 months 6;3. All four studies The word position and use of interjudge and intrajudge reliability were unable to be determined. Figure 2c profiles the age of acquisition across the four studies of Korean-speaking children. Korean consonants produced with the lips, pharynx, and posterior tongue typically were acquired earlier than consonants articulated with the anterior tongue; however, there was an interaction between place and manner. Three articles describing four studies reported the age of acquisition of Spanish consonant phonemes in the following dialects: Dominican 1 , New Mexican 1 , Mexican 1 , and Chihuahua 1; see Appendix B.
The ages of the children ranged from 23 months 1;11 to months 8;9.
One study documented the male-to-female ratio 67 males and 53 females. Figure 2d profiles the age of acquisition across the four studies of Spanish-speaking children. Across the four studies of Spanish consonants, nasals, plosives, approximants, and laterals typically were acquired earlier than flaps and some fricatives. Spanish consonants produced with the pharynx and posterior tongue typically were acquired earlier than consonants articulated with the anterior tongue; however, there was an interaction between place and manner where anterior plosives and nasals were acquired earlier than anterior fricatives and trills.
This article presents the world's largest analysis of consonant acquisition data to date: 60 articles describing 64 studies of consonant acquisition in 27 languages by 26, children from 31 countries. Most of the 64 studies of consonant acquisition reported cross-sectional data Most described acquisition of consonant phonemes in the word-initial position Although all described consonant acquisition, some also described consonant cluster acquisition Some studies included PCC This article provides an overview of patterns of acquisition in 27 languages, across four case studies English, Japanese, Korean, and Spanish , as well as general cross-linguistic patterns that could be applicable to working with a child with a language background that is not represented in the review.
General principles of development were generated by considering consonant phonemes as the unit of analysis rather than language. On average, almost all of the world's consonants were acquired by children's fifth birthdays see Table 1. Most consonants and vowels were produced correctly by 5;0 years: On average, plosives, nasals, and nonpulmonic consonants e.
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Most labial bilabial and labiodental , pharyngeal pharyngeal, epiglottal, and glottal , and posterior lingual palatal, velar, and uvular consonants were acquired earlier than those using an anterior lingual placement dental, alveolar, postalveolar, and retroflex ; however, there was an interaction between place and manner. Nasal consonants were among the earliest to develop, and plosives stops were acquired earlier than fricatives.
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When individual languages were considered as case studies, the general principles of development were upheld; however, specific consonants not acquired by 5;0 differed slightly. In this study, the summarized acquisition of the 24 English consonants did not neatly fall into the early-8, middle-8, and late-8 consonants outlined by Shriberg It is important to note that Shriberg's work was based on children with SSD, and the current study examined children with typically developing speech.
The summarized acquisition of the Spanish consonants in Figure 2c did not neatly fall into the early, middle, and late consonants outlined by Fabiano-Smith and Goldstein b for eight monolingual Spanish-speaking children. These findings highlight the importance of combining general principles from the current study with individual data that are relevant to children in specific contexts and dialects.
The results from the current study should be used as general guidance, and SLPs are encouraged to source specific studies regarding children who speak the dialect and language within their communities McLeod, b. Children's consonant acquisition is a key feature of children's overall development, enabling them to perceive and produce intelligible speech and interact with members of society.
However, the wide range and large standard deviations in the acquisition of some individual phonemes also provide support for individual variability and the cognitive model of speech acquisition by theorists such as Ferguson and Farwell and Vihman The current study upholds some but not all of the principles of markedness cf. The influence of functional load, phonetic frequency, and phonotactic probability was unable to be examined because of the lack of language-specific data for many of the languages studied cf.
To do this, researchers could consider undertaking cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of both languages of multilingual speakers, gathering a range of data single words, nonwords, and connected speech from children who were typically developing and with SSD, such as those documented in the comprehensive study undertaken by Albrecht to consider German-Turkish—speaking children's speech acquisition.
Children's consonant acquisition and accuracy are the main indicators used by SLPs to measure children's speech maturity and intelligibility. The current article draws together a large body of literature on consonant acquisition from across the world and adds to the information available to support SLPs' work with children who speak a range of languages. The article provides guidance to support SLPs' expectations of cross-linguistic consonant acquisition, including for languages where there are no data currently available.
The current article provides a preliminary resource regarding consonant acquisition for nearly 7, languages that do not have speech acquisition data. To identify articles about consonant acquisition, SLPs need to access additional resources. Recently, international research collaborations have increased cross-linguistic access and knowledge about children's speech acquisition, assessment, and intervention. For example, the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech 46 researchers who had worked in 43 countries using 27 languages produced a tutorial to support SLPs to assess children's speech in a language that they do not speak McLeod et al.
When SLPs are reading articles about consonant acquisition, particularly those that were published before the availability of typesetting of IPA symbols, additional resources including the IPA International Phonetic Association, , are required to decode some orthographic symbols within articles. One recommendation was to seek, where appropriate, typical speech acquisition data for the language s assessed. Age of acquisition, PCC, and early—middle—late data from the current study can be used to inform SLPs' expectations of children's acquisition of consonants across the world.
Generally, the latest groups of consonants to be acquired are consonants that use the anterior tongue, particularly trills, flaps, affricates, and fricatives. This knowledge can be used to inform SLPs' expectations of children's developmental capacity and decision making regarding the need for intervention. A scenario using this knowledge could be that an SLP was asked to assess a 5-year-old child who spoke Hmong, a language that, to date, does not have a published study of consonant acquisition data available in English.
Working with an interpreter, a speech sample was obtained that included a number of examples of each consonant phoneme. The child's parent also produced the same words, and the child's productions were compared using a family-member contrastive analysis, generating a list of phonemes that were not produced in an adultlike way, and by calculating the PCC. The child had difficulty producing most types of consonants, including plosives and nasals identified in the current study as being acquired early.
Consequently, the child was referred for intervention to work with the parent and interpreter on accuracy of Hmong consonant production to increase his intelligibility in Hmong. Although this study presents an inclusive and diverse cross-linguistic view of children's consonant acquisition, there are a number of limitations that influence the findings.
The maximum and minimum ages studied influenced the age of acquisition; as mentioned in the results, data from 8. As a result, Appendix A and Supplemental Material S1 provide additional data standard deviation, range, number of studies, and languages studied to assist with the interpretation of data. Most data included in the current article report monolingual consonant acquisition, with a few reporting acquisition of consonants in children's first language or other languages of multilingual children see Appendix B.
Therefore, the summary data contained within this article cannot be extrapolated to all multilingual children's consonant acquisition. However, there are some examples of carefully controlled studies of children's acquisition in more than one language that can provide a model for future studies e. Finally, most articles were published in English or had summary data available in English, presenting a limitation of the study because there may have been other studies that were not included because they were unable to be located with search strategies by English speakers.
In addition, although every attempt was made to collate data from the studies available in languages other than English, some information e. During the collation and analysis of data in the current study, the authors developed guidelines to inform future researchers' reporting of data and to facilitate comparisons across studies of children's consonant acquisition see Appendix C. These guidelines address reporting of demographic data, determining the age range of participants, selection of stimuli, reporting of consonant acquisition data, analysis, and documentation.
The psychometric guidelines provided by McCauley and Swisher for creating norm-referenced assessments could supplement the guidelines in Appendix C. This cross-linguistic review of 64 studies of 27 languages describes children's acquisition of consonant phonemes.ldi.mx/includes/self/clowns-at-midnight.php
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SLPs can draw upon these general principles as milestones of adultlike speech production but also should acknowledge children's individual speech acquisition journeys as a creative process. This appendix includes all consonant phonemes that were assessed in the reviewed studies; however, consonants may vary between dialects of each language.
Consonants in parentheses were assessed but not acquired by participants in any of the reviewed studies in that language. This appendix provides the context for data in Supplemental Material S1. Em dashes — indicate that information was not available or unable to be determined. Phonological development of monolingual Haitian Creole—speaking preschool children.
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